Egyptian obelisks lost all over the world
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Obelisk is one of the masterpieces of ancient Egypt and the most distinctive symbol of ancient Egyptian civilization besides pyramids. At present, there are 29 ancient Egyptian obelisks in the world, but only 9 in Egypt. The Obelisk usually consists of three parts: the base, the body and the apex. The stele body is a pyramid with thick and thin bottom, and the length, width and height of its base are determined according to the stele body. Its top is similar to the top of the pyramid and is wrapped in gold, copper or gold-silver alloy. According to statistics, the ancient Egyptian obelisk is between 9 and 30 meters high and weighs about 100 to 400 tons.
For various historical reasons, the ancient Egyptian obelisks were transported to western countries in large quantities. France (1), Italy (18), Israel (1), Turkey (1), Poland (1), Britain (4), the United States (1) and so on.
Among them, Rome, Italy, has long been recognized as the world's capital of obelisks. Walking through the square in Rome, you can see the obelisks of different sizes and shapes.
Lateran obelisk: The largest existing ancient Egyptian Obelisk in the world and the highest Obelisk in Italy. It was shipped to Rome in the 4th century. It is carved from a block of granite. The tablet is inscribed with exquisite ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.
As early as 30 BC, the Roman Empire captured and conquered ancient Egypt and plundered and destroyed it. In order to show off the victory of the war, the Roman emperor ordered that even the obelisks placed on both sides of the temple should be moved back to Rome. The buildings commemorating the achievements of ancient Egyptian pharaohs and praising the virtues of gods became the symbol of Rome's rights overnight.
According to the Roman naturalist Old Pliny, the process of transportation was even more amazing than the obelisk.
In order to transport the 385-ton boulder, the Romans began to build a special ship to take the Obelisk to the Italian Peninsula. To avoid the ship's oscillation during shipment, the Romans filled lentils around the stele to create a buffer. Therefore, the Obelisk can safely reach its destination along the Nile River and across the Mediterranean Sea. When Rome arrived, the Obelisk as a symbol of victory was only used to decorate the arena, temples and tombs. The value of inscriptions on tablets has been completely neglected. In the Middle Ages, a large number of obelisks were damaged to varying degrees. It was not until the 16th century that Pope Cisto V took office that he ordered the restoration of the Obelisk left over from Rome. It was also required to move 275 feet to a specific location in the square in front of St. Peter's Cathedral in the Vatican, which almost everyone thought was impossible. Domeni Fontana, then an unknown assistant architect, handed over a workable solution. First he designed and built a wooden tower around the obelisk. Then the rope is connected with the roller-skating system, and the workers are instructed to lift the tablet slowly and then move it by the way of progressive drum. More than 900 manpower, 75 horses and dozens of chain winches were used for the handling alone. A man-made dam was built on the square to allow the Obelisk to slide slowly into its intended position and stand upright. The Cube Stele Project attracted tens of thousands of ordinary people to watch the day. Fontana witnessed the successful erection of the 82-foot-high, 385-ton boulder. This success not only made Fontana a master architect, but also greatly encouraged the rediscovery and reconstruction of other obelisks. These monuments were then moved into the city, transforming Rome from a medieval city into a baroque one.
Apart from the wanton plunder of Rome and other countries, the steeple has been badly drained because it is a gift to other countries. Mohammed Ali, the former governor of Egypt, is regarded as the pioneer of modern Egyptian history. In 1830, the rich Ali presented an obelisk to the King of France. The reason is to thank Shang Boliang, a French archaeologist, for solving the mystery of the Rosetta stone tablet and uncovering the mystery of the ancient Egyptian script for thousands of years. For this reason, the king also gave back a plain bell tower.
To carry it away, more than 300 French dug a canal around the obelisk. They built a large ship to load the Obelisk and took nearly three years to reach France by sea. Today, this 23-metre-high, 230-ton Obelisk with a history of more than 3,000 years is the most striking symbol of Paris's Concorde Square.
For example, in order to thank the British Navy for defeating the French invasion, Ali presented an obelisk "Cleopatra's needle" to London in 1819.
The obelisk is quite large, about 21 meters long and weighs more than 120 tons. In order to transport from Alexandria to London, Engineer John Dixon designed a huge iron cylinder with a length of 28 meters and a diameter of 4.6 meters. Then he put the Obelisk into the cylinder and sealed it as a buoy hull. The necessary technical measures such as rudder, mast, stern and keel are also installed on the hull to ensure the safety of the obelisk. But on the way of transportation on October 14, 1877, the disaster suddenly came. The storm almost drowned the ship and killed six crew members. Fortunately, the buoy did not sink. It arrived in Britain on January 21, 1878 after a difficult time. In August of the following year, the obelisk was finally erected on the banks of Victoria on the Thames River in London.
The ancient Egyptian Obelisk erected in New York's Central Park was not well protected, and its hieroglyphs were weathered. To this end, Zahi Hawass, curator of the Egyptian Ancient Museum in 2010, wrote to him publicly accusing him: "I have a responsibility to protect all Egyptian cultural relics, whether at home or abroad. If the New York Central Park Authority or the City of New York fail to properly protect the obelisk, I will take the necessary measures to bring this precious heritage back to Egypt and save it from destruction. The curator is also known for his efforts to recover lost Egyptian cultural relics overseas.
Every cultural relic's life trajectory is amazing. The genes of national culture engraved in cultural relics can never be possessed by people from other countries.Web links